Margot Willis, National Geographic Society. While the function of this enclosure is unknown, archeologists suggest it could have been a royal residence or a symbolic grain storage facility. The wall enclosed several huts and a tall, cone-shaped tower. The Great Zimbabwe area was settled by the fourth century. Sophisticated workplaces were designed for conducting trades such as blacksmithing. Great Zimbabwe is the name for the stone remains of a medieval city in southeastern Africa. Zimbabwe means “stone houses” in Shona.Great Zimbabwe was part of a large and wealthy global trading network. Terms of Service |  serving as a representation of something. Great Zimbabwe comprises two focal points. The first inhabitants of Great Zimbabwe were Shona-speaking peoples who likely settled in the region as early as 400 C.E. It's not the name of a dance club or a new band. but abandoned it in the 15th century. The buildings were made of heavy granite blocks, stacked tightly together. Jeanna Sullivan, National Geographic Society, Sarah Appleton, National Geographic Society Africans, and Africans alone, were responsible for building this astounding and complex city. area that has been dug up or exposed for study. And third, evidence of only 100-200 residents is shown, while many thousands occupied the city. Zimbabwe's prosperity continued until the mid-15th century. Great Zimbabwe. Explore hands-on activities, maps, and more that will give students of all backgrounds new perspectives on this important part of American culture. © 1996 - 2020 National Geographic Society. sticky substance, such as cement, used to bond bricks or stones. The major cultural groups in Zimbabwe are the Shona and the Ndebele. The elite of the Zimbabwe Empire controlled trade up and down the east African coast. These ruins of Ancient Zimbabwe are some of the oldest and largest structures located in Southern Africa, and are a truly… These birds appear on the modern Zimbabwean flag and are national symbols of Zimbabwe.The ruins of Great Zimbabwe were designated a United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Site in 1986. By 1200 C.E., the city had grown strong, and was well known as an important religious and trading center. Most likely, this means that food was prepared elsewhere by servants and delivered to the wealthy inhabitants upon demand. but abandoned it in the 15 th century. National Geographic Headquarters The largest and most impressive building was an elliptical structure known today as the Great or Western Enclosure. It is one of the largest existing structures from ancient sub-Saharan Africa.The third section is the Valley Ruins. If you have questions about how to cite anything on our website in your project or classroom presentation, please contact your teacher. The walls were built without mortar, relying on carefully shaped rocks to hold the wall’s shape on their own. The people of Great Zimbabwe most likely worshipped Mwari, the supreme god in the Shona religion. Although they were all too happy to explore and loot the ruins of Great Zimbabwe, in their racism, European colonists thought the city was too sophisticated to have been built by Africans, and instead thought it had been built by Phoenicians or other non-African people. If no button appears, you cannot download or save the media. three-dimensional artwork that is carved, molded, or modeled to create its shape. Zimbabwe’s turbulent past at the hands of uncompromising colonizers is evident in the ruins of ancient African kingdoms and the legacy of British culture. Discoveries of Chinese porcelain, engraved glass from the Middle East, and metal ornaments from West Africa provide evidence that Great Zimbabwe participated in a comprehensive trade network during the 13th and 14th centuries. Cattle were very desirable and actually more valuable than most of the workers. The Valley Ruins consist of a significant number of houses made mostly of mud-brick (daga) near the Great Enclosure. This question has been pondered by archaeologists and historians for centuries. Several clues led to this theory. For a long time, many Westerners argued that such amazing structures could not have been crafted in Africa without European influence or assistance. Culture Unique to Zimbabwe The Ruins of Great Zimbabwe Through the period from the 11th century to the 15th century, descendants of the Shona speaking people are believed to have built the ruins of Great Zimbabwe. With modern technology, scientific explorers have been able to gain insight into the past.

What was life like in the earliest cities created by humankind? member of a colony, usually a founding member.

Join our community of educators and receive the latest information on National Geographic's resources for you and your students. This ancient Zimbabwe site is of tremendous cultural, political, and scientific significance. study of human history, based on material remains. Copyright ©2008-2019 ushistory.org, owned by the Independence Hall Association in Philadelphia, founded 1942. Great Zimbabwe is a ruined city in the south-eastern hills of Zimbabwe near Lake Mutirikwe and the town of Masvingo. This is generally believed to have been the religious center of the site. Unfortunately, significant looting and destruction occurred in the 20th century at the hands of European visitors. The Rights Holder for media is the person or group credited. The city of Great Zimbabwe represents the largest stone ruins today in Africa south of the Nile River. Washington, DC 20036, National Geographic Society is a 501 (c)(3) organization. When you reach out to him or her, you will need the page title, URL, and the date you accessed the resource. People lived in Great Zimbabwe beginning around 1100 C.E. All rights reserved. It's actually a translation of the Shona word, "Zimbabwe." Great Zimbabwe is the name of the stone ruins of an ancient city near modern day Masvingo, Zimbabwe.

The Hill Complex is the oldest part of Great Zimbabwe, and shows signs of construction that date to around 900 C.E.The ruins of the second section, the Great Enclosure, are perhaps the most exciting. Although the huts were not quite as glamorous as the granite "palaces," they were well constructed. Archaeologists and anthropologists believe that the enclosure was the city's center and was occupied only by the elite. The audio, illustrations, photos, and videos are credited beneath the media asset, except for promotional images, which generally link to another page that contains the media credit. (1550 BCE-300 BCE) civilization on the eastern Mediterranean coast built around trade and exploration. It was the dividing line between the rich and the rest. Second, no evidence of cooking was found within the walled area. For information on user permissions, please read our Terms of Service. The Kingdom of Great Zimbabwe has declined, but the House of Rock still stands. By 1000 C.E., the population of Great Zimbabwe was divided and ranked by status — from elite leaders and their cattle to the peasants who did all the work. Though not the best illustration of the modern African nation, this phrase is a perfect description of the ancient city within its borders known as Great Zimbabwe. The first section is the Hill Complex, a series of structural ruins that sit atop the steepest hill of the site. The Great Wall of China was built over centuries by China’s emperors to protect their territory. Great Zimbabwe Ruins - Past and Present. The people of Great Zimbabwe most likely worshipped Mwari, the supreme god in the Shona religion. However, despite the damage done by these colonial looters, today, the legacy of Great Zimbabwe lives on as one of the largest and most culturally important archaeological sites of its kind in Africa.

At this time, the city's trade activity declined and the people began to migrate elsewhere. Back then, the land was full of possibilities: plains of fertile soil to support farming and herding, and mineral rich territories to provide gold, iron, copper, and tin for trading and crafting. Today, it stretches for thousands of miles along China’s historic northern border.

Stones were arranged carefully, and no mortar was used to seal them together.

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